Alhaji Ibrahim Dasuki was born in Dogon Daji, Sokoto, the son of Sarkin Yamma and district head of Dogon Daji, Haliru Ibn Barau by name. He started Qur’anic education in 1928. In 1931, he attended Dogon Daji Elementary School before proceeding to Sokoto Middle School in 1935. He finished his secondary education at Barewa College, Zaria on a sponsorship from Sokoto Native Authority.
In 1943, he worked as a clerk in the treasury office of the Sokoto Native Authority after high school as it was the tradition in Northern Nigeria for grant recipients to work for their sponsors, their respective Native Authorities.
He finished his secondary education at Barewa College, Zaria, on a sponsorship from Sokoto Native Authority. After finishing high school in 1943,
However, in 1945, he took up appointment with Gaskiya Corporation, a publishing house that published the Hausa daily, Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo . In 1953, he took up appointment in the regional civil service an executive officer. A year later he became private secretary to Ahmadu Bello.
In 1957, he filled the position of regional executive council deputy secretary and a year later he was sent to Jeddah as Nigeria's pilgrimage officer. Between 1960 and 1961, he worked in the Nigerian embassy in Khartoum, Sudan and was later brought back to Nigeria by Ahmadu Bello to work as a resident in Jos, later on, he became the permanent secretary in the regional Ministry of Local Government. Dasuki later switched to the Ministry of Commerce in 1965 as its permanent secretary.
From 1965 until he was crowned Sultan, Dasuki concentrated largely on his business activities. In 1966, he was chairman of the influential Northern Nigeria Produce Marketing Board, an organisation involved with marketing the export of groundnut and in the distribution of seeds and chemicals. From 1967 to 1977, he was director and later chairman of the Nigerian Railway Corporation (NRC). He was co-founder and chairman of the Nigerian branch of BCCI from 1979 to 1989. He was also a partner of Nessim Gaon in APROFIM, the firm was involved in infrastructure investments, commodity production, purchasing and export activities.
In 1984, he was appointed chairman of the Committee for the Review of Local Government Administration in Nigeria. One of the major recommendations of the committee was the establishment of a national local government commission. However, the idea was rejected by the government. Dasuki was also an influential figure in the 1988 Constituent Assembly, he was a nominated member of the assembly and was seen as a rallying point for the core north.
After the death of Abubakar Siddique, the 17th Sultan of Sokoto on November 1, 1988 he became the 18th Sultan of Sokoto but was deposed in 1996 by General Sani Abacha through the military administrator of Sokoto State, Col. Yakubu Muazu, for reason among others such as causing enmity among the people and among the royal family. He was immediately flown to Yola and then taken to Jalingo where he was placed on exile. Muazu gave some reasons for the banishment such as Dasuki was causing enmity among the people and among the royal family, ignoring government directives and traveling outside his domain without approval or notice from the government.
He died on the 14th of November 2016 at the Turkish Hospital in Abuja after a protracted illness and is survived by his wife and children prominent amongst them Col. Sambo Dasuki.