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Pearl of Tourism
Quick Fact
Population: 4,653,066 (2006 census figures) - 7th of 37
Percentage of Nigeria's total population: 3.31%
Population density: 100 people per square kilometre - 28th of 37
Landmass: 46,622.0 square kilometres - 5th of 37
State capital: Bauchi
Local Government Areas: 20
Current Governor: Isa Yuguda


Bauchi State is one of the six states that form the North East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. It is bounded by the states of Jigawa and Kano to the northwest; Kaduna to the west; Plateau, Taraba and Gombe to the south; and Yobe to the east. Bauchi is its capital city.

Land Mass, Location, and Population
Bauchi State covers an area of 46,622.0 square kilometres. It lies at latitude 10°30’ north and longitude 10°00’ east. It has a population of 4,653,066 (2006 census figures) and a poluation density of 100 people per square kilometre. The state accounts for 3.31% of Nigeria's total population.

Main Towns and Cities
Bauchi (capital city), Azare, Ningi, Jama-are Tafawa Balewa, Zaki, Katagum, Miau and Dass

Picture source: Newswise

History and People

Before the Fulani jihad, the Bauchi region was inhabited by a large number of small tribes, some of which spoke languages related to Hausa and some of which were Muslim. The province of Bauchi was conquered between 1809 and 1818 by Fulani warriors led by Yakubu, the son of a local Gerawa ruler who had been educated at Sokoto under Usman dan Fodio. He founded the town of Bauchi in 1809.

Several of the subject peoples successfully revolted under the rule of his son and successor, Emir Ibrahim ibn Yakubu. Emir Usman moved the capital to Rauta (35 miles northwest) in 1877, but Bauchi became the emirate headquarters again in 1902 when the British occupied the town and deposed Emir Umaru. The town served as the provincial capital from 1904 until 1911 and again from 1917 to 1924. In 1926, it became the headquarters of the Bauchi province of the Northern Region during the colonial era. In 1967 during the state creation exercise of General Yakubu Gowon's administration, Bauchi became a part of North Eastern State. The state was again carved up in 1996 when Gombe State was excised from it.

The name of the state is said to derive from the name of a famous hunter, Baushe. The word bauchi also means slavery or the land of slaves in Hausa. Bauchi and Adamawa were the two main sources of slaves for the Sokoto Empire.

The majority of Bauchi's inhabitants are Muslims. The state instituted sharia law in 2001.

Economy and Educations

Bauchi is an agricultural state and produces corn (maize), yams, rice, cassava (manioc), tomatoes, vegetables, millet, groundnut and guinea corn. The Balanga, Gubi and Tilde-Fulani dams aid in irrigation farming. Bauchi is one of the country's main cotton-producing states; coffee and peanuts (groundnuts) are its other cash crops. Animal rearing and production are important in the state, particularly cattle, goats, sheep, donkeys and pigs. Poultry is also significant.

Bauchi State indigenes also produce arts and crafts including embroidered caps and gowns (known as babban riga), fibre craft, decorated calabashes, metal work, agricultural tools, pottery, leather work and mat weaving. Cotton weaving and dyeing, tanning, and blacksmithing are other traditional activities.

The state has several mineral deposits, including gold, cassiterite (tin ore), columbite, gypsum, wolfram, coal, limestone and lignite. However, only a few of these are currently mined. Cassiterite is mined in places such as Gamau and Maijuju. Quarrying of granite and other rocks for road and other construction takes place in the south-western parts of the state, especially in the Toro LGA. There are clay deposits in Darazo, Misau and Udubo. The formal mining of tin within the Jos Plateau area started in 1905 in Tilden Fulani, Toro LGA in Bauchi State.

The state's industries include meat-product processing and canning, peanut processing, vegetable-oil milling, ceramics production and cotton ginning. There is also an assembly plant for commercial vehicles and trucks as well as a cement factory.

The federal tertiary institutions in the state include Abubakar Tafawa Balewa UniversityFederal Polytechnic, and the Federal College of Education (all in Bauchi). The state-owned tertiary institutions include: the Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi; the Bauchi Women Teachers' Arabic College, Azare; the State College of Education, Azare, the AD Rufa'i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Miau; and the Bauchi School of Health Technology, Ningi.

Further Description

Governors and Administrators: 

  • Mohammed Kaliel (Governor – Military): March 1976 – July 1978
  • Garba Duba (Governor – Military): July 1978 – October 1979
  • Tatari Ali (Governor – Civilian (National Party of Nigeria)): October 1979 – December 1983
  • Mohammed Sani Sami (Governor – Military): January 1984 – August 1985
  • Chris Abutu Garuba (Governor – Military): August 1985 – December 1987
  • Joshua Madaki (Governor – Military): December 1987 – August 1990
  • Abu Ali August (Governor – Military): August 1990 – January 1992
  • Dahiru Mohammed (Governor – Civilian (National Republican Convention)): January 1992 – November 1993
  • James Kalau (Administrator – Military): December 1993 – September 1994
  • Rasheed Adisa Raji (Administrator – Military): September 1994 – August 1996
  • Theophilus Bamigboye (Administrator – Military): August 1996 – August 1998
  • Abdul Mshelia (Administrator – Military): August 1998 – May 1999
  • Adamu Mu'azu (Governor – Civilian (People’s Democratic Party)): May 1999 – May 2007
  • Isa Yuguda (Governor – Civilian (All Nigeria Peoples Party/People’s Democratic Party)): May 2007 – May 2015
  • Mohammed Abubakar ( Governor- Civilian( All Progressive Party)): May 2015- Present

Local Government Areas:

  • Alkaleri
  • Bauchi
  • Bogoro
  • Dambam
  • Darazo
  • Dass
  • Gamawa
  • Ganjuma
  • Giade
  • Itas/Gadau
  • Jama'are
  • Shira
  • Katagum
  • Kirfi
  • Misau
  • Ningi
  • Tafawa Balewa
  • Toro
  • Warji
  • Zaki

Notable Indigene

Sir Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa was Nigeria's first and only Prime Minister. Rising from a poor background (his father was a slave of the Madakin Bauchi, a traditional ruler), he became a teacher and eventually was a key figure in Nigeria's struggle for independence. He is pictured here with American President Dwight D. Eisenhower shortly Nigeria became independence.

Did You Know

 Bauchi state was named after a hunter-baushe who settled in the region before the arrival of the fir4st traditaional ruler of Bauchi emirate-Yakubu. Bauchi means the land of freedom.