Kaduna State is entirely woodland savannah. Agriculture and animal husbandry are significant commercial activities in the state. The most important cash crop grown is cotton. Other crops cultivated are yams, groundnuts, tobacco, corn, beans, guinea corn, millet, ginger, rice and cassava. The principal minerals found in the state include clay, serpentine, asbestos, amethyst, kyannite, gold, graphite and siltimanite graphite. The major industries in Kaduna State are textiles, automobile assembly and petrochemicals. Local pottery is also of commercial importance.
Kaduna State has many tertiary institutions, including a federal university (Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria); a state university (Kaduna State University, Kaduna); a federal polytechnic (Kaduna Polytechnic with campuses in Barnawa, Mando and Kafanchan); six federal colleges (Federal College of Education, Zaria; Federal College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Kaduna; Federal College of Chemical and Leather and Technology, Zaria; Federal College of Forestry Mechanisation, Afaka; Federal College of Agriculture, Zaria and Nigerian College of Aviation Technology, Zaria); a state polytechnic (Nuhu Bamali Polytechnic, Zaria); the Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna; the Nigerian College of Aviation Technology; and a state college of education (Kaduna State College of Education, Gidan Waya, Kafanchan).It is also home to the Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology (Kaduna), the College of Nursing and Midwifery (Kafanchan), City University of Technology (a private university located in Kaduna) and the National Open University of Nigeria.
Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria, Kaduna State is the second largest in Africa after Cairo University, Egypt.