Farming is the main occupation of the people of Osun State. Its inhabitants grow various food crops including yam, cassava, cocoyam, maize, vegetables, fruits, corn and beans, as well as raise poultry and fish. They also grow some cash crops such as cocoa and kola nuts. The major minerals found in Osun State include gold, clay, limestone and granite. A number of agro-allied industries are located in the state. The traditional crafts of cloth (aso-oke) weaving and tie-and-dye fabric (adire) making are also of commercial importance to the state.
Osun State has one federal university (Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife); one state university (Osun State University, Osogbo); a private school of nursing (the Seventh-Day Adventist School of Nursing, Ile-Ife); a state school of nursing and midwifery in Osogbo; and four private universities (Bowen University, Iwo; Adeleke University, Ede; Joseph Ayodele Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji; and Fountain University, Osogbo). It is home to a number of polytechnics, including theFederal Polytechnic, Ede; the Polytechnic at Ile-Ife and Osun State Polytechnic, Iree. There is also a government technical college and a jointly-owned (with Oyo State) teaching hospital (Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo).
The oldest evidence of habitation at the site of Ife, Osun State dates back to as early as 600BCE.