Agriculture is the state's main economic activity. Coffee, tea, groundnuts, cotton, maize, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, and yam are all produced in commercial quantities. Taraba is home to West Africa’s only highland tea plantations. Cottage industries in the state such as the production of leather goods, pottery, metalwork and dyed cloth are a source of income for many of its inhabitants. The river port and town of Ibi is a major collecting point for sesame seeds and soybeans. Cattle, sheep and goats are all reared in large numbers on the Mambilla Plateau. Chickens, rabbits breeding and pig farming occur on a fairly large scale.
There are three universities in Taraba State: the Federal University at Wukari ,the Taraba State University at Jalingo and Wukari Jubilee University (also known as Kwararafa University)which is the only private university in the state. Taraba is also home to two polytechnics: the Federal Polytechnic, Bali and the Taraba State Polytechnic, Suntai. There is also a college of education in Zing and a college of agriculture in Jalingo.
Chappal Waddi is Nigeria’s highest mountain. Located within the Mambilla Plateau, it reaches a height of 2,419 metres (7,936 ft).