Agriculture is the mainstay of Sokoto's economy. The riverine floodplains produce cash crops, including peanuts (groundnuts), cotton and rice. Sorghum, millet, cowpeas and cassava are grown in the upland areas. Much of the land in the state is used for grazing cattle. Cattle hides, goatskins, sheepskins and finished leather products are significant exports, as are cattle, goats and fowl. The state possesses limestone and kaolin deposits and Sokoto City, the state capital, is home to a cement factory, tanneries and a modern abattoir.
Sokoto leather (also known as morocco leather) is considered the finest in the world.